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Honorary Professor Dr.Manee Phayomyong
Honorary Professor Dr.Manee Phayomyong
Dr. Manee Phayomyong, or Ajan Manee or Phokhru Manee as he?s referred to by most of his acquaintances with respect, is considered a Lanna scholar who was appointed as a National Artist (Literature) in 2006. He was born in Chiang Mai on March 2, 1930 at Khileknoi Village, Tambon Khilek, Mae Rim District, Chiang Mai Province, son of Mr. Chai and Mrs. Tom. He married Miss Bunying Sukhumin and had one son and one daughter. After retirement, he suffered from health problems, in particular trouble with his eyesight until he passed away on June 20, 2009 at approximately 0300 hrs. at Maharaj Nakhon Chiang Mai Hospital due to massive infections at the age of 79.
Ajan Manee contributed a great deal in the area of Lanna culture. He was a good example of someone who constantly acquired knowledge on various Lanna rituals and religious performances and practices. He became a Buddhist novice when he was 15 years old and managed to pass level 3-6 in Buddhist studies. At the age of 31, he left the monkhood and continued his studies at the Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University and graduated with a Bachelor?s Degree. Later he joined the Master?s Degree program in Thai Language and Literature in the Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University, Prasarnmit Campus.
During his monkhood he was famous as a rhythmic or poetic preacher. He wrote a lot and also took examples from many renowned Thai writers such as Phraya Anumanratchathon, Luang Vichitwathaikan and Prince Bidyalongkorn (pen name Nor Mor Sor) and was able to write well with a simple but profound style (Aphiwan Phansuk. 2007, p. 43: Office of the National Education Commission, 2002).
Ajan Manee?s works consist of those concerning Lanna culture and academic subjects in a large quantity. He became a knowledgeable person in matters related to the culture especially as a practitioner and know-how person. His roles involved directing the society regarding art and culture as well as teaching students and interested people throughout the country for over 50 years. Thus, he is considered a great contributor, conservationist and disseminator of culture in various aspects and topics for the good of the public while being an example of a good citizen or member of the society.

Work Profile:
1962 ? 1963 Journalist and Columnist for Khon Mueang Daily
1963 ? 1964 Part-time teacher at the Buddhist Dharma School at Phan-on Temple, Mueang District, Chiang Mai
1965 Teacher at Walukaram Temple, Mae Rim, Chiang Mai
1966 Principal at Wat Suwannawat School, Mae Rim, Chiang Mai
1967 Transferred to be a civil servant at the Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University
1968 ? 1969 Teacher at the Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University
1972 Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University
1978 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University
1983 Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University
1988 Professor, Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University
1992 ? 1999 Retired and granted an honorary professorship of Chiang Mai University and served as an expert on committees of various agencies.

Office of the National Culture Commission. Khru phumpanyathai 2nd group, Northern Region. Bangkok
Aphiwan Pansuk. (1997). Prof. Dr. Manee Phayomyong, National Artist, Literature. Romphayom. 9 (1), 44-49.

1942 ? 1943 Primary education 6. Khileknoi Prasatsil School
1944 Novice, Khileknoi Temple and studied Buddhist Dharma at Sankhayom Temple
1945 Dharma study at Intharam Temple (Khilek Luang) and passed the exam for the First Level (naktham tri) and practice preaching the Matsi Episode of the Jakata (story fo the Buddha?s previous life).
1950 Passed the 3rd level of Dharma Study and became a senior Dharma scholar and assigned to teach the 2nd level students as well as teach fundamental Pali 1-2 and qualified to be a primary level teacher.
1957 ? 1957 Passed levels 4-6
1959 Certificate for primary education teaching (phor por) and passed exam equivalent to secondary level education in Liberal Arts.
1966 Certificate for secondary education teaching (phor mor)
1971 B. Ed. (Education) Chiang Mai University
1976 M. Ed (Language and Literature), Srinakharinwirot University, Prasarnmit Campus
2005 ? 2006 PhD (Lanna Language and Literature), Chiang Mai University
(1958 ? 2007)
Manee Phayomyong. (1958). Khaoso phutthaprawat: wannakham haeng wiang nuea. Bangkok: Phrasingkanphim.
_____. (19 --). Phaiwat baep khonmueang. Chiang Mai, [n.d.].
_____. (19--). Tamra taeng khlong khong lanna thai. Chiang Mai: [n.d.].
_____. (1968). Tamra riannangsue lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Klangwiang.
_____. (1970). Prawat lae wannakhadi lanna. Chiang Mai: Khonmueang.
Manee Phayomyong and students enrolled for Ed. F. 208. (1971). Khunkhathang watthanatham. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
Manee Phayomyong. (1971). Sanrak khong phraya phromwohan. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1972). Khlong Hongphakham. Chiang Mai: Research Project and Collection of Lanna Thai related documents, Lanna Folkloreology Center, Chiang Mai Teacher?s College.
_____. (1973). Prawat lae wannakhadi lanna. Chiang Mai: Mitnara.
_____. (1976). Kanwikhro lae priapthip mahachart phakklang, phaknuea, phakisan lae phaktai. M. A. Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University.
_____. (1976). Kansueksa choeng wikhro khlong prathumsangka. Chiang Mai: Social Research Institute, Chiang Mai University.
Prasert na Nakhon and Manee Phayomyong. (1977). Khlong phrommathat wannakam chanyiam khong lanna thai. Chiang Mai: [n. d.]
Manee Phayomyong. (1979). Khati sonchai lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Thanthong.
_____. (1980). Nirat Tokyo. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1981). Watthanatham lanna thai. Bangkok: Office of National Culture Commission.
_____. (1982). Kansueksa choengwikhro wannakhadi lanna thai: rueang khongamara. Chiang Mai: Social Research Institute, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1982). Watthanatham lanna. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1982). Prapheni sukhwankhwai khong lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1982). Prawat lae wannakhadi lanna. Bangkok: Kurusapa Business Organization.
_____. (1983). Thammullakantrai. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai Province Cultural Center, Chiang Mai Teacher?s College.
_____. (1984). Kanwikhro panha lae hetkan nai sangkhomthai patchuban. Class Handouts. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1984). Tamrarian nangsue lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University.
_____ and Narinchai Phatthanaphongsa. (1984). Withichiwit lae khaniyom khong chao lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education and Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1985). Prapheni nakkhattarik khong lanna thai lae nithan chak khrao uthahon. Bangkok: Book Promotion Project Committee according to the Royal Initiation.
_____. (1986). Prapheni sipsongduean lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Sor Sapkanphim.
_____. (1986). Watthanatham lanna. Bangkok: Thai Watthana Phanit.
_____. (19--). Prawatchiwit lae phonngan khong Chao Duongduean Na Chiang Mai . Chiang Mai: [n. d.].
_____. (1990). Khraophutthaprawat. Chiang Mai: Thanthong Kanphim.
_____. (1991). Khuet khuang. Chiang Mai: [n. d.].
_____. (1991). Thiansongchai: khatisonchai chao lanna thai. Collection of radio talks of the morning program of Radio Thailand, Chiang Mai. Ed. Somchok Ongsakun. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (1990). Tamrariannangsue lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Sor Sapkanphim.
_____. (1990) Phithibuongsuong lae prawat watchatikaram (wat chediluang). Chiang Mai: [n.d.].
_____. (1990). Phasathai pasathin maisinsun. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University, The Arts and Culture Center Project.
_____. (1992). Kansongsakan nai phithi phrarathcathan phoengsop ajan kraisi Nimanhemin, Saturday, November 21, 1992 at Phrasingha Temple, Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai: [n. d.]
_____. (1992). Panphon. Chiang Mai: Arts and Culture Center, Chiang Mai Rajabhat Institute.
Manee Phyomyong and Sirirat Asana. (1995). Khruengsakara na lanna thai. Bangkok: Thai Danu Bank.
_____. (1995). Phithi khuensao-ek ban. (VDO). Chiang Mai: [n. d.]
_____. (1996). Khraoram 700 pi mueang Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai: Dao Computer Graphic.
_____. Narrator. (1997). Songkran lae khantok: prapheniyingyai haeng dindaen lanna thai. [VDO]. Bangkok: 2020 World Media, Co.
_____. (1997). Nai hong ICU. Chiang Mai: Dao Computer Graphic.
_____. (1998). Tamra rian nangsue lanna thai. (3rd printing). Chiang Mai: Dao Computer Graphic.
_____. (2003). Sanpotchananukrom lanna. Chiang Mai: Dao Computer Graphic.
_____. (2004). Prapheni sipsongduean lanna thai. (5th ed. Revised). Chiang Mai: Sor Sapkanphim.
_____. (2007). Thiansongchai: khatisonchai chao lanna thai. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
_____. (2007). Phramahachanok lae phrariyamata. Chiang Mai: Phraboromathat Doi Suthep Foundation.
Other Works:
1982 ? 1987
Radio broadcast on culture and customs on various radio stations in Chiang Mai (Sor Wor Thor, Wor Por Thor and Mor Kor) in programs entitled Phralokhwan, Thiansongchai, Phutthaprathip, etc.
1995 ? 1997
1. Composed a poem, using Lanna and Central Thai poetic forms, entitled ?Khraoram 700 pi mueang Chiang Mai? in honor of His Majesty the King on the 50th anniversary of his ascension to the throne.
2. Composed a poem for the book entitles ?Somdet Phrathep Rattana Ratchasuda Sayamboromratkumari Kawisipracha? on the topic ?Dangchanthawan Somsaeng Songla? published by the Fine Arts Department to commemorate the 40th Birthday of HRH the Crown Princess.
1987 ? Present
1. Training for the Jataka preaching in Lanna rhythm and poetic chanting for the soul calling of Buddhist monks and novices.
2. Presenting to HM the Queen a traditional flower arrangement called ?baisi? on her 60th Birthday in 1993.
3. Some creative poetry, namely Nirat sila charuek, Nirat wiangphrao, Nirat Chiang Dao, Khrao phutthaprawat, Nirat Tokyo, a poetic inscription engraved on the base of the Three Kings Monument, etc.
4. Tape recording of Lanna folk singing, namely Lanna khadi boran phithi, Baisikhwan, paying respect to the teachers, Yong khru, O-phaya, Lanna khadi baranphithi prapeni pimaimueang, lyrical chant and demonstration of various styles of Lanna singing and chanting.
5. Poetic composition related to soul calling, invocation and sacrifice offering chant to the spirits and gift presentation to the King, namely presenting a great silver bowl to the King on the 50th Anniversary of his ascension to the throne and to the Queen on her 60th Birthday.
Outstanding contributions:
The following is an excerpt from the National Culture Commission praising Professor Dr. Manee Phayomyong as a National Artist 2006:
Professor Dr. Manee Phayomyong has been praised for undertaking many aspects of knowledge and skills related to literature, culture, customs, rites and rituals. He has proved to be well versed in both Lanna and Central Thai poetic composition and the lengthy poetic narrations on the Buddha?s life and the 700 Years Anniversary of Chiang Mai City. All of them are precious contemporary poetry in terms of literary art and conservation of Lanna culture and literature in such areas as Buddhist literature, passing on Lanna culture, being skillful in presenting imagery and poetic works rich in vivid pictures of the people?s way of life, culture, beliefs and value from the past to the present.
Due to the large quantity of his works, we can classify them into 4 types: poetry of both verbal (written) and oral forms, revision of Lanna literary manuscripts, written works of Lanna customs and culture including textbooks and academic research.
Among the large number of works of this type are the Lanna poetic chant (khrao - so) about the Lord Buddha?s life; nirats (travelogues) about various places such as Tokyo, Wiang Phrao and Chiang Dao; chanting to invite the spirit to return to a person so that he will gain strength and good health. This ritual has been performed especially on some significant people like the King and Queen and the members of the royal family as well as state visiting monarchs and leaders of some countries. There are also poetic chants to bless the city as on the occasion of the 700 Years Anniversary of Chiang Mai City and one to commemorate the former kings who took part in building the city like the one inscribed on the pedestal base of their monument. Many such poetic chants were composed by Professor Manee Phayomyong. Therefore, he has been respected for his literary skills in composing poetry and creating some contemporary Lanna verbal and written literary work as well as performing some auspicious and important ceremonies related to the royal visits and religious preaching. Some of his outstanding contributions are khraoram 700 pi Mueang Chiang Mai, which is considered a contemporary poem comprising many kinds of poetic forms (khlong, garb and rai) narrating the history and archeology of Chiang Mai divided into 11 sections. The poem begins with an invocation and reason for his composing it, the account of the construction of Chiang Mai City, the legend of Yonok Naga City of King Lawa Chunkarat, Phya Lao Meng, Phya Mangrai, the prosperous time of Nopburisinakhonphing Chiang Mai and other kings of Chiang Mai up to the modern times renovation of several ancient places in Chiang Mai, the story of Khruba Siwichai during WWII and Chiang Mai in the Age of Technology, its expansion and Western style buildings to the celebration of its 700 years anniversary. Its distinctive features lie in the narrative and poetic chant mixed with Lanna expressions and idioms and several poetic forms and versification or prosody. The content reflects various aspects of Lanna society and Thai society in general. The author also inserts some motifs of art, culture and the way of life of Lanna people and some moral lessons along with guidelines to conduct one?s life. In terms of literary value, some parts are moving and impressive to the reader or listener, especially the part describing the death of King Mangrai where the ministers and people were grieving as follows:
602. How sad and pitiful that our powerful and brave king
Who invaded various cities and towns, who built the vast kingdom of Lanna
Whose death caused the confusion and shock of many.
603. All the ministers and Thai slaves wept.
The ladies and wives wept.

The same event is described in other poetic forms of khlong and rai.

126. Mangrai?s death set stillness in the city.
Servants and noblemen alike.
Tree leaves drop yellowish.
The whole city of Wiang Phing is moaning.
127. Ministers were heartbroken.
When Informed of His Majesty?s death.
Like fire burning and heart trembling.

The author gave an account of the development of Chiang Mai out of to love and concern for Lanna, their mother land and homeland which once was prosperous and then declined with time and tide, leaving behind precious legacies like language, Lanna script, literature, architecture, sculpture, paintings and other art works.

For this reason this work has become a contemporary work that links and blends well the distant past with the present age of globalization and technology.

753. ?Chiang Mai? means New City
That prospers and is one
In art and beautiful people
That brings joy to all.
754. The ancient city
Full of glory,
Outstanding in tourism
Outdoing others in the land.
755. The extensively vast city
Rich in attractive artwork
Which all dream to visit
The great leading city of Lanna Thai.

Moreover, this work is valuable in terms of social significance. It serves as an archive recording many important events and construction as well as places and beliefs in Lanna society. It is an origin of the modern narrative lyric about the 700 years of Chiang Mai containing knowledge and examples of different Lanna literary forms while reflecting the beliefs, values and lifestyle of the people of Lanna from the previous times to today.
Regarding Lanna beliefs, the work depicts the beliefs related to the people?s lifestyle such as those about khwan (spirit), auspicious occasions, dreams, the law of karma and beliefs about building a city. As for customs, the work mentions several customs connected to death, which are described in all the steps and details such as the royal funeral and cremation, ancient worship and the inthakin (city pillar) festival
Lanna values are presented as well as their love of fun and entertainment in auspicious and inauspicious occasions, food for various times and functions, Buddhism and its influence in their lives, the construction of temples and chedis, including the hospitality of the people.
Another outstanding piece of Lanna literature is Khrao phuttha prawat or the lyrical account of the Buddha?s life composed in 1526 stanzas of Lanna poetry in B.E. 2500 to praise the Three Gems of Buddhism with the Buddha?s being the head. The poem was composed on the occasion of Buddhism?s being in existence for as long as 2,500 years and to carry on or preserve Lanna poetic forms. The content is divided into 13 sections beginning with paying respect to the Three Gems, a brief reference to the author, a statement of the purpose of the writing, the content which runs from the Buddha?s birth to his death and ends with the last teaching. Thus, the work has become a contemporary Lanna religious work using outstanding narrative techniques and poetic rhetoric giving a clear picture and imagery that moves the reader/listener?s heart, in particular when Prince Siddharta left his hometown while missing his wife and son like the nature of any other human, but he finally overcomes that worldly concern and mundane attachment until he is able to achieve the great wisdom and enlightenment in order to find the way to release man and other creatures to get out of the cycle of life.
549. I love you, Phimpha and my son as well
I wished to leave you to seek the highly regarded monkhood
Yet, I couldn?t decide; it?s very hard.
554. Like a mountain being set on my chest
It?s suffering when separated from my dear wife.
It?s torment and my heart collapses.
When the Lord Buddha passed away, all Buddhist followers together with all things in nature and deities were moaning and weeping. This is also one of the best in literary art.
1498. The Lord Buddha had gone into meditation
To become an arahan and enter Nirvana,
At the middle hour when dawn began to break.
1499. Misty fog was sprinkling on the grass
Like drops of diamonds shining white
Of which crickets and other insects too to their nests.
1500. Entering Nirvana is the revered monk
To profound bliss away from the world.
When sudden commotion and dark clouds took over.
1501. Dark also was the moon,
The Ganges River churned and water creatures were frightened.
Struggled hard even the giant Leviathan.
1502. The planet swiftly tilted and shook with quakes.
Angels with flowers descended in the dark to pay respect to the Buddha.
Music of all kinds played heavenly tunes.
(Khrao Phutta Prawat p. 219)
The poem ends with the poet?s pledge and the last teaching to remind people to be careful because death is a fact of life.
Last teaching:
Waya thamma sankhara appammaten sampathetha
The Lord Buddha, lord of the three kingdoms,
Is leaving to enter Nirvana.
But still he worried about his people.
So he gave them the crystal lens of wisdom.
Our human bodies suffer.
Birth, illness, aging and death
Nothing is permanent and is subject to deterioration.
Therefore, be firm in mind and heart
Concentrate on the truth
Don?t let your heart become careless
Meditate on wisdom and escape the worldly cycle of life.

The poem reflects the author?s strong faith in Buddhism and his poetic talent. Dr. Manee Phayomyong also composed all kinds of verses for specific ceremonies and rites such as words to bless the elders and the soul calling of the royal family and monks. These words are elaborate and specific to ensure appropriateness to the status of the people involved. Examples can be found on such occasions as the soul calling of Their Majesties, that of Tao Kraison Phromwihan and Thao Nuhag of the Lao People?s Republic.
Moreover, Dr. Manee Phayomyong was an expert in chanting the classic preaching of Mahachart or the Lord Buddha?s past life, especially the Kuman, Matsi, Maharat and Nakhon episodes. He was admired for his clear and persuasive voice. He was invited to sing and perform in special religious and auspicious ceremonies like baisi sukhwan to invoke the gods and deities, soul calling for nak and lukkeo in Buddhist ordination.
Text Revision
Dr. Manee Phayomyong participated in several activities related to the revision of some ancient manuscripts in Lanna and Central Thai script such as Khlong phromathat, Khrao Phyaphromwohan, Khlong Amara, Khlong Supasit (poetic proverbs), Khrao Uthahon, Thamphimphaphilap, Khamphi taithoi Chonkham, Khamphi Awahanphaikhao and Khamphi Ahan Bueangplai. There are also publications of the revised texts and glossary useful in carrying on Lanna literature and making them understandable and appealing to the younger generation.
Professor Dr. Manee Phayomyong conducted a number of studies on Lanna literature and folkloreology such as a comparison of the Jataka of the Central, Northern, Northeastern and Southern versions, a study of Khlong Amara, a study of the Lanna way of life and values, a comparison of Khlong prathumsangka, and analysis of Lanna rituals and values and an analysis of Lanna agricultural related values and rituals. All of his studies and research was done systematically creating a body of knowledge on Lanna literature and producing a cultural legacy for academic reference and study.
Academic Contributions
The honorary professor Manee Phayomyong wrote a large number of textbooks to be used in many institutions and that served as references in academic circles. These are texts on Lanna script, language, literature, customs, rituals, classroom and school texts on Lanna books 1 and 2, literary histories of Lanna literature, twelve months festivals of Lanna Thai, sacrificial offerings of Lanna, words to say blessings, Lanna proverbs, a dictionary of Lanna Thai, an encyclopedia related to Lanna Art, literature and history that have become a useful handbook for students and academia.
Thus, Professor Manee Phayomyong has been regarded as a poet and scholar of Lanna who contributed greatly in continuing and creating contemporary Lanna literature in terms of religious and historical as well as ritual literature. He was an expert in written and verbal literature. He got involved in various activities on Lanna culture and continually provided valuable advice on art and culture for over fifty years.
Honors and Awards

1988 - Certificate of Merit for outstanding poet from the World Art and Culture Institute at the 10th World Poet Congress in Bangkok.

- Father of the year on the National Father?s Day, December 5, 1988.
- Outstanding Alumni on Culture, plaque presented by Chiang Mai Province.
- Outstanding Alumni of the Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University.
1990 The Royal Award of Phrakio Thongkham from Chulalongkorn University for constant promotion of the Thai language.
1991 Outstanding Northern Cultural Contributor (Lanna), Humanities, from the National Culture Commission Office.
1992 Outstanding Alumni of Chiang Mai University.
1993 Outstanding Supporter in Cultural Conservation, Chiang Mai News & Television Association
- Pin granted to Outstanding Person on Conservation of Thai Legacy (Language and Literature) by HRH the Crown Princess.
2002 Thai Wisdom teacher Class 2 on Language and Literature, the National Education Commission of the Office of the Prime Minister.
2006 National Artist (Literature).

The following are the Royal decorations granted to Professor Dr. Manee Phayomyong in respective order of significance:
Benjamaphon Mongkutthai
Benjamaphon Changphueak
Chatura Benjamaphon Changphueak
Chaturaphon Mongkutthai
Chaturaphon Changphueak
Triyaphon Mongkutthai
Triyaphon Changphueak
Thawitriyaphon Mongkutthai
Thawitriyaphon Changphueak
Pathamaphon Mongkutthai
Northern Thai Information Center (NTIC),
Chiang Mai University Library in collaboration with Information Technology Service Center
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